Napak - Iriri

Napak District is situated in mid-north-eastern Uganda. It lies between latitudes 1˚ 53’N, 3˚ 05’N and longitudes 33˚ 38’E, 34˚ 56’E. It shares borders with five districts: Kotido to the north, Otukei and Abim to the northwest, Katakwi to the west, Moroto to the east and Nakapiripirit to the south.
Napak’s elevation ranges between 1,356 – 1,524m above sea level. The district has a total land area of 8,516km squared which is 3.5% of the country’s area coverage.
Historical Background and Administrative Arrangement
Napak was curved from Moroto District from 1st July 2010 with its headquarters located in Lorengecora Sub-County. The district has seven sub counties and one Town council.
Land use
The district covers an area of 4,978 km2 . Approximately 2,046 km2  is available for cultivation excluding game reserves and parks (2,864 km2 ) and mountains (58 km2). The population density on this arable land is 22.3 persons per km2.
Climate, Rainfall and Temperature
The climate in Napak is semi-arid characterized by an intense hot season lasting from November to March. The wet season is from April to August with marked minima in June and marked maxima in May and July. Rainfall is in the range of 300 to 1200mm per year with a mean annual rainfall of 800mm.  The mean daily maximum temperature ranges from (280c – 330c) during the dry season. Generally, the hottest months are January and February when the average daily maximum temperature may reach 33.50c; in October – December average daily maximum temperature is 29.50c. Mean daily minimum temperature ranges from 15– 170c.
Available records indicate an average relative humidity of 63% during morning hours and 46% during the afternoon. As expected, lowest relative humidity values are experienced during the months of drought; higher values are recorded in the morning hours.
Relief and Vegetation
The vegetation pattern in Napak district is typically semiarid with dry savannah tree species and predominantly grass species. The main vegetation communities in the district include forests at high altitudes (dry montane forests), savannah woodland, semi evergreen thickets, deciduous thickets, riparian communities, and grass steppe communities. Forests are localized groves on hills and mountains such as Kamalinga Forest on Mt Napak. Forest cover is estimated at 100 km2 .
Ethnic Groupings
The inhabitants are of two major tribes. The Karimojong are the main inhabitants of the rangelands, and the Tepeth live on the mountains of Napak. While these people have differences in language and culture, they share similar socio-economic conditions. They are agro-pastoralist, practicing subsistence crop production and semi-nomadic livestock rearing. Due to migrations over the years diverse tribes from all parts of the county reside in urban areas such as trading centers and town boards, including Iteso, Luo, Buganda, Bagishu, Somalis and some people of Europeans.

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